Commuters were caught up in the violence at Rio de Janeiro’s central station during rush hour.
Riot Police fired tear gas and tried to disperse the crowd, while activists hurled stones and petrol bombs.
A cameraman was in a serious condition in hospital after suffering a head injury.
Six other people were also injured and at least 20 protesters were arrested.
In 2013, similar protests grew into a nationwide movement against corruption and excessive spending ahead of the football World Cup, which Brazil will host in June and July.