No Part Of Nigeria Will Be Occupied By Criminal Elements, Buratai Vows

SERAP, EiE, BudgIT Ask Buratai To Account For Money Spent Fighting Boko Haram, Others
Chief of Army Staff, Lieutenant-General Tukur Buratai


The Chief of Army Staff, Lieutenant General Tukur Buratai, has vowed not to allow criminal elements occupy any part of Nigeria.

Buratai, who was speaking at the 61st passing out parade of the Nigerian Military School, Zaria in Kaduna State, reiterated his commitment to combat all security challenges confronting the nation.

Represented by the Chief of Policy and Planning, Lieutenant General Lamidi Adeosun, Buratai said that the army in collaboration with other security agencies, is doing everything possible to tame the resurgence of the Boko Haram, kidnapping, Armed banditry and other related crimes across the country.

“I will like to reassure you all that the Nigerian army is committed to the unity and security of this country and will do everything humanly possible to ensure that no part of this country is occupied by criminal elements.

“We will continue to support the civil authorities by ensuring that our country men and women are safe and protected in the course of their legitimate activities,” he stated.

According to the Army chief, the Federal Government is concerned with the security challenges in parts of the country.

He however noted that the military is winning the war against terrorism by stabilising the north-eastern region.

One of the achievements recorded in the military operations in the northeast, he stated, is the improvement of economic activities in the affected area.

READ ALSO: ‘RevolutionNow’: Police Vow To Resist ‘Forceful Change Of Government’

“The Nigerian Army in collaboration with other sister services and security agencies has been able to stabilise the situation, especially in the north-eastern part of Nigeria.

“Consequently, economic activities of the affected areas are gradually improving as the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are voluntarily returning to their ancestral homes with farmers going back to their farmlands,” he stated.

While appreciating the efforts of soldiers in the ongoing military operations in the fight against terrorism, the COAS admonished the new grandaunds to be loyal to the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Army More Committed In Defeating Boko Haram, Says Buratai

Tukur Buratai


The Chief of Army Staff (COAS), Lieutenant General Tukur Buratai, says the Nigerian Army is more determined in defeating the Boko Haram terrorists and other security challenges in parts of the country.

He gave the assurances during an interdenominational church service and Juma’at prayer organised to mark this year’s Nigerian Army Day Celebration (NADCEL) in Yola, the Adamawa state capital.

Speaking through the Brigade Commander 23 Armoured Brigade Major General Mohammed Gambo, Buratai said the Nigerian Army will continue to live up to their expectations regardless of the prevailing security challenges bedevilling the country.

“Let me use this opportunity to reiterate our determination to achieve more successes in our fight against insurgency and other forms of criminality in the land.

“Our efforts must not be relaxed until our mission of complete defeat of the insurgents and other criminals in the country is attained,” he said.

READ ALSO: Gunmen Kidnap Two Chinese Workers, Kill Police Officer

While recalling the theme for this year’s Army day celebration, ‘Professionally Responsive Soldiering: A Panacea for successful Military Operations,’ Buratai commended President Buhari and the National Assembly for their continuous support.

According to him, the Nigerian Army will continue to live up to their expectations regardless of the prevailing security challenges bedevilling the country.

The COAS also appealed to Nigerians to continue supporting the military in its efforts at tackling the security challenges of this country by providing useful information to law enforcement agencies in the country.

In attendance were the state governor, Umaru Fintiri, the heads of other security agencies and officers of the Brigade.

Other activities lined up to mark the Nigerian Army Day Celebration was cleaning exercise of the Jimeta market area in Yola by the soldiers.

The military also organised a medical outreach in Malkohi Village, a community hosting the IDPs in the Malkohi camp with residents turning up in their numbers to receive free medical attention.

Politicians Planning To Bomb And Disrupt Governorship Elections – Buratai


Lieutenant General Tukur Buratai says the army has uncovered plots by some politicians seeking to disrupt the forthcoming elections with violence, including bombing some areas. 

The Chief of Army Staff (COAS) made the revelation on Wednesday, during a meeting with Principal Staff Officers (PSOs), General Officers Commanding (GOC), Operational Commanders and Directors of the military at the Army Headquarters, Abuja.

He said, “Recent security threat assessment and analysis of the coming elections showed that politicians have made plans to use all means available to truncate the peaceful conduct of the elections.

“There are indications of their intent to take advantage of and to use the farmers/herders crisis, armed political thugs and ethnic militias to perpetrate acts of violence including bombings.

“Some of them also intend to infiltrate domestic staff of political opponents, employ mercenaries to carry out acts of assassinations, use the social media for smear campaigns, hate speeches and spread fake news in a bid to disrupt the peaceful conduct of the elections.

General Buratai, however, noted that the army is well prepared and has set operations in place to ensure that the plans of the deviant politicians will not come to fruition.

READ ALSO: Army Vows Tough Action Against Perpetrators Of Electoral Violence

Below is the Chief Of Army Staff’s full statement.


Once again let me welcome you all to another expanded weekly meeting as done 2 weeks ago. I want to use this opportunity to congratulate you all for the professional manner in which you executed my directives for Operation SAFE CONDUCT. The proactive intervention of NA in the recently concluded Presidential and National Assembly Elections contributed greatly to its successful conduct and credibility. I am glad to note that both international and local observers and indeed the Nigeria print and electronic media applauded the professional role played by the Nigerian Army in ensuring that a secure and conducive environment was created for eligible voters to exercise their civic rights. Unfortunately, some level of violence was still recorded leading to disruption of polls, burning of ballot boxes in some areas as well as loss of lives, including the death of an officer and 3 soldiers. The Nigerian Army to a larger extent ensured that the large scale electoral malpractices and acts of thuggery aimed at disenfranchising voters as witnessed in previous elections were curbed despite the campaign of calumny orchestrated by some politicians against us.

Overall, I am delighted to note that the first phase of Operation SAFE CONDUCT was a huge success. Despite the bomb explosion in some parts of Maiduguri and attack in Geidam, troops of Operation LAFIYA DOLE were able to decisively defeat the attacks and secured the area for a successful conduct of elections. We must therefore consolidate on this success and prepare adequately for the second phase of the election by reviewing our plans with a view to correcting observed lapses a peaceful poll that will reflect the wishes of Nigerians that have the right to determine those that govern them.

Recent security threat assessment and analysis of the coming elections showed that politicians have made plans to use all means available to truncate the peaceful conduct of the elections. There are indications of their intent to take advantage of and to use the farmers/herders crisis, armed political thugs and ethnic militias to perpetrate acts of violence including bombings. Some of them also intend to infiltrate domestic staff of political opponents, employ mercenaries to carry out acts of assassinations, use the social media for smear campaigns, hate speeches and spread fake news in a bid to disrupt the peaceful conduct of the elections. We must not allow them succeed.

Let me reiterate that the NA will enforce all guidelines in support of the Nigeria Police Force to ensure the peaceful conduct of the elections in line with its constitutional roles. I therefore want to remind us all not to rest on our oars. We shall not allow those who are determined to undermine our electoral process to succeed. These forthcoming gubernatorial and state assembly elections are very crucial. This is an election that touches on the interest of the people at the grassroots and could likely be volatile in nature. It is important to reiterate that politicians will employ and deploy all means to outwit each other to gain control of power at this level. We may recall that in the recently concluded polls, some politicians in their quest for power, armed thugs and miscreants with automatic weapons; induced and coerced youth corpers and INEC ad-hoc staff to perpetrate acts of electoral malpractices. We must therefore continue to support the NPF and other security agencies to prevent these malpractices from occurring again. I therefore urge all commanders to work assiduously and closely with the civil authorities and all law abiding individuals as well as groups to ensure the success of the forthcoming elections.

During the course of the recently concluded elections, troops of the Nigerian Army were able to make arrests of persons who perpetrated acts of electoral offences. These suspects are to be immediately handover to the police for prosecution. I want to state and categorically warn that the Nigerian Army will not tolerate any acts that will undermine national security. This time around we shall be tough on those who plan to rig or disrupt the electoral process. I therefore want to appeal to Nigerian youths to shun any attempt by any politician to use them to perpetrate any form of violence. As we mourn the death of the young officer and soldiers killed on the course of their lawful duty during the recently held election, I want to assure their families that their death will not be in vain. In line with the tradition of the Nigerian Army they will be given heroic burial as they are indeed the heroes of our democracy. I have directed that their full entitlements be paid. Let no one be in doubt that those desperate politicians and criminals that attacked our troops in the course of carrying out their legitimate duties will be tracked down and brought to justice.

We have all seen the advantages of the NA Situation Room for Elections Security Monitoring. This laudable innovation to security monitoring has received accolades from different quarters and already promoting inter-agency cooperation. There is no doubt it assisted us in timely decision making and more timely response to situations. I want to urge all commanders to further key into the platform. As we take decisions and respond, we must have at the back of our mind that the army must remain professional and apolitical all through the electoral process.

There have been reports of alleged compromises by some personnel during the elections. We have received complaints from some stakeholders, major political parties, Governors of Bayelsa, Oyo and Ogun States of allegation of misconduct as well as unprofessional conduct by some of our personnel. Unfortunately some other states have gone to the press with unsubstantiated allegation without resort to the NA leadership. Nonetheless, all these complaints are noted and will be addressed appropriately. A high powered committee had been convened and instituted to investigate all cases of alleged misconduct by troops arising from the 2019 General Elections. This is aimed at ensuring that all cases are thoroughly looked into for the purpose of dispensation of justice and to uphold Nigerian Army’s credibility, professionalism, and apolitical stand.

Once again let me reiterate my charge to you concerning this election:

Commanders must be vigilant to ensure that cases of infiltrations to scare off voters are not allowed.

Hobnobbing and fraternization with politicians during this election period is totally prohibited.

Commanders must ensure robust and extensive patrols are carried out to cover all flash points; enforce the no movement restrictions and carry out thorough searches of vehicles and persons.

Commanders must deal decisively with any electoral crime or action such as electoral thuggery, snatching of ballot boxes, illegal possession of electoral materials and firearms as well as other crimes that would mar the smooth conduct of the election.

There must be no military escort for any politician or retired military personnel until after the elections.

Commanders must ensure that no retired military officer is allowed to use Service weapons hitherto authorised for their personal safety during the period of the election.

Commanders must ensure that troops remain on the ground to counter and deal ruthlessly with any post-election violence.

Commanders must work in conjunction with the police and other security agencies to dominate the environment to forestall any form of violence.

Commanders must maintain force protect and respond decisively to prevent any surprise attack on troops of Operation SAFE CONDUCT and eligible voters by armed militia groups or political thugs.

Commanders must act according to the Rules of Engagement and within the code of conduct as well as have respect for fundamental human rights in the performance of their assigned roles.

Commanders must not take any unlawful orders from any politician no matter how highly placed that will jeopardize the apolitical stand of the Nigerian Army.

Commanders must ensure troops under their command remain apolitical, neutral and should deal ruthlessly with electoral lawbreakers as well as avoid compromise with any politician and political party.

Finally, I want to seize this opportunity to thank all well-meaning Nigerians for their support to the Nigerian Army. Our Situation Room and hotline contact numbers are open for timely passage of information. We urge them to take advantage of the facilities. I want to assure Nigerians that we are more than committed to ensuring the successful conduct of the election. In the words of Sun Tzu I quote “The general is the safeguard of the state. If the safeguard is flawed, the State is surely weak”. The Nigerian Army must, therefore, work to keep the promise to our nation and make it strong by ensuring that the election is free of all forms of violence. We must, therefore, strive to make a difference. On this note, I want to also most sincerely thank His Excellency President Muhammadu Buhari GCFR, for giving the Nigerian Army the opportunity to exercise its constitutional role without any bias or interference. We must, therefore, remain totally committed to the defence of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. I wish you all a successful conduct of Operation SAFE CONDUCT and a violence-free election.

Thank you all and God bless.”

Insurgency: Defence Minister Asks COAS To Remain In North East

Security: Army Will Continue To Work For Common Good, Buratai Assures Nigerians
File photo: Tukur Buratai


The Minister of Defence, Mr Mansur Dan-Ali, has ordered the Chief of Army Staff, Lieutenant General Tukur Burutai to remain in the north over the security challenges in the region.

According to a statement issued on Monday by Colonel Tukur Gusau, the Public Relations Officer to the Minister of Defence, the directive came shortly after a meeting to review the security situation in the country.

He said, “The Honourable Minister of Defence, Mansur Muhammad Dan-Ali met with the CDS and Service Chiefs today Monday 3 December 2018 at the Ship House, Headquarters of Ministry of Defence and consequently directed the Chief of Army Staff to remain in the North East until security situation improves.

“Similarly, the General Officer Commanding the 8 Division, Nigerian Army was also directed to relocate his Tactical Headquarters from Sokoto to Gusau, Zamfara state to oversee the conduct of Operation Sharan Daji.”

The Chief of Defence staff, General Gabriel Olonisakin and the army chief were directed to effect changes in the operational commands of Operations Delta Safe in the Niger, Lafiya Dole in the northeast, Sharan Daji in Zamfara and Katsina states and Awatse in the south-west.

The order comes after President Muhammadu Buhari ordered the procurement of critical equipment for the armed forces.

He also approved the enhancement of the welfare of troops serving in operational areas within the country.

No Efforts Will Be Spared In Supporting Military To Achieve Its Task – Buhari

President Muhammadu Buhari says the Federal Government is committed to improving the military operations in the north-east, adding that his administration would spare no efforts in supporting the military to achieve its task in the region.

The President said this during the Chief of Army Staff (COAS) 2018 annual conference in Maiduguri, the Borno State capital on Wednesday.

“We remain committed to ending the crisis in the north-east and making the entire area safe for all. I urge you all to keep up the good work.

“I know that you are doing your job to reverse this trend. I want to assure you that no effort will be spared in providing the necessary support you require to complete your task,” he said.

His comments come weeks after several soldiers lost their lives to insurgents in the Metele area of Borno State, while in their line of duty – a situation which has sparked various reactions across the country and beyond.

President Muhammadu Buhari addresses members of the military during the COAS 2018 Annual Conference in Borno on Wednesday, November 28, 2018.


The president who had vowed in a statement issued last week, that immediate measures are being taken to ensure that the loopholes which led to the fatalities are blocked once and for all, commiserated with the families and relatives of the slain officers.

He also stated that he has visited some of the injured soldiers who are currently receiving treatment.

“I have been visiting some of our injured troops in the hospitals and I also spoke to others in their bases to assure them of our continued support.

“It is a must-win war. I want to encourage our troops not to be distracted but remain focused to the task of eliminating Boko Haram from the face of the earth.

“The Nigerian Army’s commitment to upholding democracy is appropriately captured in the theme of the conference which is optimizing the operational efficiency of the Nigerian Army towards safeguarding democracy in the national security.”

As the general elections draw closer, the President advised members of the military to be non-partisan before, during and after the elections.

He also advised the Force to collaborate with other security agencies in ridding the nation of any violent acts that could mar the electoral process.

COAS 2018 Annual Conference Holds In Borno

The Chief of Army Staff (COAS) 2018 annual conference was held on Wednesday in Maiduguri, the Borno State capital.

The conference began after President Muhammadu Buhari declared it open on Wednesday.

Speaking on the theme, ‘Optimising Efficiency for the Efficiency of the Army in Nigeria’s Democracy’, the Chief of Army Staff, Tukur Burati, reiterated the commitment of the nation’s troops in addressing the security challenges in the north-east.

See photos below:

Buhari Arrives In Borno For COAS Conference

Courtesy: @BuhariCentre


President Muhammadu Buhari has arrived at Maiduguri, the Borno State capital for the Chief of Army Staff (COAS) conference, which begins today.

The President during his visit is expected to meet the troops of the Operation Lafiya Dole at the theatre command fighting insurgency in the north-east region to boost their morale.

The planned visit by the Commander-in-Chief comes about two weeks after the Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP), a Boko Haram splinter group, killed dozens of soldiers in Metele, a remote village near the border with the Niger Republic.

READ ALSO: Buhari Meets With Service Chiefs In Abuja

Boko Haram Reportedly Kills Army Commander, Several Soldiers In Three Days

The conference which was earlier scheduled to hold in Benin City the Edo State capital was shifted to Borno purportedly over the Metele massacre

He has held two different meetings with intelligence service chiefs at the Villa twice this week following the recent security situation in the country.

Military To Redouble Efforts In Fighting Insecurity – Chief Of Air Staff

FILE PHOTO Chief of Air Staff, Air Marshall Sadique Abubakar



The Chief of Air Staff, Air Marshall Sadique Abubakar, has assured Nigerians that the Military will redouble its efforts to tackle the various security challenges in the country.

Abubakar made this known during the inauguration of some projects at the Nigerian Air Force 209 Quick Response Group base in Ipetu-Ijesha, Osun state.

He explained that the security challenges in the country ranging from farmers /herdsmen clashes in the middle belt to the insurgency in the North East among other vices necessitated the expansion of the Nigerian Air Force base.

This, according to him, would enable them to provide swift responses to security emergencies in the southwestern region of the country.

He also noted that as part of the development, 700 trained personnel have been deployed to the 209 Quick Response Group base.

Abubakar expressed gratitude to the President for providing the necessary requirements for the Force to operate and therefore promised to do all it can to continue to secure the nation.

He said: “We thank President Muhammadu Buhari who, in spite of the harsh economic realities has continued to avail us with necessary requirements to sustain our operations.

“We will ensure the security of our people and uphold the democratic ideals for the progress and prosperity of our fatherland, while also ensuring that available resources are judiciously used,” he said.

On the classroom project, the Chief Of Air Staff said it was inaugurated to increase the intake into the Air Force Primary School while the 10 block of flats was to provide accommodation for Air Force personnel.

COAS Empowers IDPs In Adamawa

Nigerian Army

In a bid to ameliorate the sufferings of the people in the ravaged Adamawa state, the Nigerian Army has begun its bid of empowering the Internally Displaced Persons in the state.

The initiative, according to the Chief of Army Staff, Lieu-Gen Tukur Buratai, is to provide a soft landing for the IDPs as they prepare to return to their host communities.

The COAS was represented by the General Officer Commanding 3 Division in Jos Brig. Gen. Benjamin Ahanotu.

The GOC, who addressed journalists at the National Youth Orientation Camp in Malkohi, said the campaign was for the IDPs in Yola-South Local Government area of the state, to flag off the distribution of the first batch of Empowerment items to the IDPs.

He said, “We have the task of winning the hearts and minds of the society by developing the economic capacity of Internally Displaced Persons through an empowerment initiative programme aimed at providing a means of livelihood for them.

“The initiative will provide a soft landing for the IDPs as they prepare to return to their host communities. As a security outfit, the military is mindful that the displaced persons will not constitute another nuisance to the society by engaging in nefarious activities to survive.”

On his part, Governor Mohammed Jibrilla who was a special guest of honour at the event applauded President Muhammadu Buhari and the military for restoring peace in the ravaged North East.

About 200 IDPs are expected to benefit from this intervention as they prepare to return to their host communities to begin a new life.

COAS Celebrates Christmas With Troops At The War Theater

COAS Celebrates Christmas With Troops At The War TheaterThe Chief of Army Staff has celebrated Christmas with officers and men of the Nigeria Army prosecuting the war in the security threatened northeast states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states.

In Yobe state, the Military Head of Logistics, Major General Pat Akim, represented the Chief of Army Staff to military locations in Goneri and Buniyadi which are currently prosecuting the war in the state.

He reaffirmed to the troops that the highest military hierarchy and Nigerians appreciate their efforts at the war front and tasked them never to relent as the war would soon be won.

Major General Pat Akim, while at the two battalions was received at the quarter guards by officers and men of the battalions in line with military traditions.

He informed the troops that the war on terror would soon be over courtesy of their resilience, while he praised them for their doggedness in the fight, saying reports from Sambisa forest indicates that the final stronghold of the insurgents have fallen.

“We have just been informed that the strongest place the insurgents are currently claiming ownership (the Sambisa forest) has been captured.

“With this development, the insurgents cannot lay claim to any territory as we speak and all these are courtesy of your dogged efforts which we cannot compromise any longer.

“We are really happy and proud of your achievements and we will do everything possible to make your stay here in rounding off the war a huge success” he said.

Nigeria Army, he said is at the verge of winning the war and there would be no retreat no surrender in the battle until it is won. He then charged them never to take chances.

The Army general took time off to inspect equipment and facilities at the various battalions and praised their sacrifice and commitment to their fatherland.

He noted that the top officers’ decision to celebrate Christmas with them was to give them a sense of belonging and mark of appreciation for their patriotism.

The Commandant of the 27th Taskforce Brigade headquarters in Buniyadi, Brigadier General Emmanuel Ekwesi, thanked the military hierarchy for the initiative saying it would go a long way in boosting the morale of the troops who he said are focused on seeing that the insurgents are woefully defeated.

“This visit will in no small measure boost the morale of the troops who are in the theater of the war and let me at this point thank the COAS for the initiative which has given us a sense of belonging.

“Let me on behalf of the troops assure that we will not relent in anyway in prosecuting the war to its logical conclusion,” Brigadier Ekwesi said.

The troops held a camp fire night and other outdoor activities in observance of the Christmas celebration while troops of the Yobe State Council for Arts and Culture were on hand to add colour to the occasion.


Boko Haram Picked Wrong Fight With Wrong Enemy, Army Chief Says

Boko HaramThe Chief of Army Staff (COAS), Lieutenant General Tukur Buratai, on Saturday reassured Nigerians that the army will take every necessary step to restore normalcy across the northeast.

He says the Boko Haram militants that have in the last seven years pushed for the establishment of an Islamic State and an end to Western education in the region ‘picked the wrong fight against the wrong enemy’.

The COAS gave the assurance in Goneri and Buniyadi, two prominent frontline locations the Nigerian Army is currently prosecuting the Boko Haram war in Yobe State.

Represented by the head of Logistics of the military headquarters, Major General Pat Akim, the Buratai said the army would work hard to defeat those undermining the nation’s security.

The highest military hierarchy had deplored very senior officers to celebrate the Christmas with troops fighting the Boko Haram insurgents in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe States, with the aim of giving them a sense of belonging while at the battle field.

Nowhere To Hide

The Chief of Army Staff, who tasked officers and men within the theater of the operation on putting an end to every form of terrorism in the region, also praised the soldiers for their gallantry, stressing that although the war is being won, they must stand firm in the fight until the militants are completely defeated.

“We are proud of you for sacrificing your sleep, leisure and working under the sun and in the rain to ensure that those undermining the nation’s security are taught lessons that will serve as deterrent to others.

“Let me seize this opportunity to call on Nigerians to appreciate the role being played by these gallant officers and men who are putting in their best by ensuring peace is maintained across the country so that their labours will never be in vain.

“We are sad that you are spending Christmas in trenches, that is why we are leaving the comfort of our homes to share with you this moments and I can assure you that everything will be done possible to ensure your welfares and logistics needs are taken care of.

“Don’t retreat and don’t give room for any laxity that you are winning the war despite the successes,” Buratai stressed

He assuresd them that more troops would be deployed to increase the manpower needs of the military formations across the theater of war.

The Army Chief’s statement came on the same day Nigeria’s presidency announced that the last Boko Haram Sambisa Forest bulwark had been cleared by troops fighting the terrorists.

President Muhammadu Buhari had said that the sect members have nowhere to hide and would be pursued until they were brought to justice.

Nigerian Army To Partner Abia State On Made In Aba Products

Nigerian Army To Partner Abia State On Made In Aba ProductsThe Chief of Army Staff, Lt Gen Tukur Buratai, has hinted the intention of the Nigeria Army to partner Abia state in patronizing made in Aba products.

He dropped the cheering news during a visit at the Government House, Umuahia, where he acknowledged the receipt of the letter written by Governor Ikpeazu on the patronage of made in Aba products.

Lt Gen Buratai thanked the Governor for the excellent relationship between the government and people and the Nigerian Army hinting that the purpose of the training programmes by the Nigerian Army is to train the troops.

He gave the assurance that the Army do not intimidate the people as is alleged in some quarters.

“We are looking more inwards rather than going out, trying to conserve scarce foreign currency and do more things.

“I want to acknowledge and say that I received your letter sometimes back on the patronage of certain products that you produce as I can see them in my front.

“And I want to let you know that we have long queued into this. The Army has been partnering and been directing our suppliers to contact the producers to ensure that they get made-in-Nigeria products.

“And this move, I want to guarantee will continue, because we are channeling them home so that our local industries can thrive and serve us better,” the COAS said.

Governor Ikpeazu commended the Chief of Army Staff on his efforts at ensuring the unity of the country and for the various operations going on in the Army aimed at optimizing the capacity of his men.

He called for mutual respect for one another as a way of harnessing all the country’s attributes irrespective of tribe and religion in order to maintain the oneness of the country.