The African Union (AU) suspended Guinea-Bissau on Tuesday over last week’s coup, adding to pressure on military chiefs who said they were ready to restore power to civilians after talks with regional mediators.
A high-level delegation from the West African regional grouping ECOWAS, which has branded the coup as “unacceptable”, met Guinea-Bissau’s military overnight and ECOWAS Commission head Desire Kadre Ouedraogo told reporters there was an agreement “on the return to constitutional order”.
Foreign governments and international organisations have condemned Guinea-Bissau’s military after soldiers cut short a presidential election in the impoverished West African state, detaining election front-runner and former Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Junior as well as interim President Raimundo Pereira.
“The (AU’s) Peace and Security Council decides to suspend with immediate effect Guinea Bissau from all activities…until restoration of constitutional order,” AU Commissioner for Peace and Security Ramtane Lamamra said after a meeting at the bloc’s headquarters in Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa.
Suspension is the African Union’s normal response to any interruption of constitutional rule in one of its members.
Guinea-Bissau’s Catholic bishops added their voice to the condemnation, while Amnesty International accused the army of clamping down on protests, the media and freedom of movement.
With uncertainty gripping the crumbling coastal capital Bissau, which has been tense since the coup, many residents have fled to find safter locations in the interior.
“Increasingly repressive measures are being employed by the military as they try to stifle mounting criticism within the country and internationally,” Marise Castro, Amnesty International’s Guinea Bissau expert, said in a statement.
The London-based rights group called for the release of Gomes Junior and Pereira, saying they were being held at Mansoa Barracks, 60 km (37 miles) northeast of Bissau.
“Reportedly, both men are being held incommunicado in a mosquito-infested small cell with no water or toilet facilities,” it said, adding that Gomes Junior suffered from diabetes.
The former Portuguese colony has seen several coups and army revolts since independence in 1974 and the latest is a setback for efforts by Western donors to reduce military meddling in politics and counter the influence of Latin American drug-trafficking cartels using the country as a transhipment point.
Lieutenant-Colonel Daha Bana na Walna, spokesman for the Guinea-Bissau army leadership, said ECOWAS would send a technical team to assist in restoring civilian rule.
“It was agreed that ECOWAS would help with the restoration of civilian government,” he told Reuters. Na Walna said the country was calm and there was no disorder.
ECOWAS had also insisted in the talks that Gomes Junior and Pereira be freed.
“As soon as the conditions of security exist for this,” they will be freed,” na Walna said. But he did not specify when or whether Gomes Junior would be allowed to stand again for fresh elections, which the military has said it wants to be held.
SHADOWY COUP LEADERSHIP
It was the second coup in West Africa in less than a month. A March 22 military takeover in Mali saw that Sahel country split in two with Tuareg and Islamist rebels holding the north.
Guinea-Bissau’s military has announced the formation of a “national transition council” tasked with leading the nation to fresh elections. But a refusal to participate by the main political party, PAIGC, has robbed this of any credibility.
Gomes Junior and Pereira are PAIGC members.
The former was the expected winner of a scheduled April 29 presidential election run-off, interrupted by the coup.
Gomes Junior was unpopular with military chiefs because he backed plans to reform the bloated army, which is accused by Western security agencies of involvement in drug-trafficking.
Confusion persists over exactly who masterminded the coup.
A shadowy self-styled “Military Command” said it acted to head off what it alleged was a secret pact between Gomes Junior and Angola to “annihilate Guinea-Bissau’s armed forces”.
Angola had been providing military trainers and advisers to the smaller state in a military cooperation mission. But it announced earlier this month that it was ending the mission.
Guinea-Bissau military spokesmen have declined to confirm rumours that armed forces Chief of Staff General Antonio Indjai also was removed in the coup, saying only that he was “safe”.
Many believe Indjai, the nation’s most influential military figure, was the architect. “The question has been whether Indjai is in detention or behind the coup but the consensus now is that it is the latter,” one Bissau-based diplomat said.