The Ivorian Striker, who recently re-signed for Chelsea, has made his 104th appearance and played in three World Cups with a record of 65 goals.
In a statement, Drogba acknowledged his teammates and support from fans through his years of playing football for Les Elephant.
“It is with much sadness that I have decided to retire from international football.
“I am very proud to have been captain of this team for eight years and to have contributed to placing my country on the world stage of football, taking part in three World Cups and two African Cup of Nations finals.
“I cannot convey enough thanks to the fans for all the love and support during these years. All my goals, all my caps, all our victories are for you.
“I also owe much gratitude to my team-mates – the players with whom I have shared all these emotions – and I wish you all much success for the future and a very warm welcome to the new manager, Herve Renard,” Didier Drogba said.
The two-time African Footballer of the Year returned to London club, Chelsea for a second spell this summer.